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j CIRCULAR No. 537 NOVEMBER 1939 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



EARLY CHEYENNE PIE PUMPKIN 

By LeKoy Powers, senior geneticist, Division of Fruit and Vegetable Crops 
and Diseases, Bureau of Plant Industry 



CONTENTS 



Page Page 



Origin.. _ 1 

Season of maturity 1 

Prolificacy 2 

Fruit and vine, characteristics 2 



Quality of fruit , 3 

Resistance to disease 3 

Seed stocks 3 

Recommendation as to production 3 



ORIGIN 



Early Cheyenne pumpkin resulted from an individual plant selec- 
tion of commercial New England Pie pumpkin growing in the 
variety test at the Cheyenne Horticultural Field Station, Cheyenne, 
Wyo. It was the earliest maturing pumpkin in the New England 
Pie plantings, and, since selection, it has been inbred by self-polli- 
nation for six generations. Consequently, Early Cheyenne is now 
very uniform both as to fruit and plant type. Since tests showed 
that it is very early and is otherwise particularly adapted for pro- 
duction at the higher elevations, it seems desirable to release this 
selection. It is recommended for the higher elevations and should 
be tried in the northern sections of the United States where earliness 
is of extreme importance. 

SEASON OF MATURITY 

Under irrigation at the Cheyenne Horticultural Field Station, 
Early Cheyenne has matured from 1 to 2 weeks earlier than the 
earliest strain of commercial New England Pie and from 2 to 3 
weeks earlier than the commercial strain from which it was selected, 
and is about the same number of weeks earlier than an early strain 
of Connecticut Field selected at the station. Some of this increase 
m earliness is probably due to its ability to germinate and grow 
under the somewhat adverse conditions encountered at high eleva- 
tions. For example, at Cheyenne cold weather may prevail for a 
time during any period of growth. This is particularly true of the 
period from planting to emergence. Early Cheyenne emerged from 
3 to 4 days earlier than the commercial New England Pie with which 
it was compared. This earliness of Early Cheyenne is emphasized 
further by the proportion of plants (planted at the same time) that 
matured fruits ; 99 percent of the plants of Early Cheyenne, 73 per- 
cent of the plants of commercial New England Pie, and only 34 
percent of the plants of Connecticut Field matured fruits. 

159626° — 39 



2 CIRCULAR 5 3 7, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

PROLIFICACY 

Prolificacy may be measured by the number of mature fruits. In 
these tests Early Cheyenne averaged 9.3 fruits per vine that were 
mature, commercial New England Pie 5.8 fruits, and Connecticut 
Field 3.3 fruits. These data show Early Cheyenne to be prolific. 

FRUIT AND VINE CHARACTERISTICS 

The size and shape of the fruits of Early Cheyenne are shown in 




Ftguke 1. — Fruits of Early Cheyenne, showing size and shape. 

figure 1. They are considerably smaller than the fruits of either 
commercial New England Pie or Connecticut Field. The fruits of 
Early Cheyenne are sufficient for making one pie but generally are 
not large enough to make two. This small size of fruit is desirable 
from the standpoint of the home and market gardener, as a large 
pumpkin makes more pies than can be utilized at one time by the 
average American family. Thus, the small size of fruit may be 
looked upon with favor by both the housewife and groceryman, espe- 
cially because a pumpkin that has been cut does not keep ver}^ well. 
On the other hand, Early Cheyenne is probably too small to meet with 
favor among canners of pumpkin. The average length (measurement 
from stem to blossom end) as grown at Cheyenne, Wyo., is from 2 
to 4 inches and the average diameter is from 5 to 7 inches. The fruits 
have a flat shape and are grooved, as can be seen from figure 1. The 



EARLY CHEYENNE PIE PUMPKIN 6 

outside color of the fruits is a dull reddish orange. Early Cheyenne 
has a vine habit of growth with rather fine stems and leaves. As 
previously stated, it fruits abundantly. 

QUALITY OF FRUIT 

The keeping quality of Early Cheyenne in storage is about the 
same as that of commercial New England Pie and Connecticut Field. 
Different members of the staff of the Cheyenne station have made 
pies from this variety for the last 3 years and the consensus of 
opinion is that in flavor and other characteristics making up quality 
it is fully the equal of commercial New England Pie. The flesh has 
a deeper yellow color than that of commercial New England Pie, 
but it is somewhat thinner than either that variety or the Connecti- 
cut Field. 

RESISTANCE TO DISEASE 

In some of the higher irrigated valleys of the West, pumpkins are 
attacked by diseases that produce a yellowing of the foliage and in 
a number of instances cause a decided dwarfing of the entire plant, 
resulting in loss of plants throughout the growing season. For the 
2 years 1937 and 1938, Early Cheyenne has been tested in the irri- 
gated sections near Torrington, Wyo. In 1937 Early Cheyenne 
seemed to resist the attacks of diseases common to those sections 
more than any of the commercial strains of pie pumpkins tested. 
However, for that year loss of plants was not great for any of the 
pie pumpkins. In 1938 the loss of plants due to disease was great 
in the tests at Torrington. Both commercial New England Pie 
and Connecticut Field as well as Early Cheyenne were included in 
these tests. Early Cheyenne finished the season with a full stand 
of healthy, vigorous plants, whereas commercial New England Pie 
had a 60-percent stand at the end of the season and Connecticut 
Field had a 40-percent stand. The causes of the epidemic were not 
determined. It seems that Early Cheyenne is resistant to some of 
the diseases that commonly occur in the irrigated sections of the 
West. 

SEED STOCKS 

As Early Cheyenne seed is being released in small quantities for 
the first time in 1939, seed for home and market gardens will not be 
available before 1940 or 1941. 

RECOMMENDATION AS TO PRODUCTION 

Early Cheyenne is recommended for production in those sections 
where a small-fruited^ early-maturing type of pie pumpkin is desired. 






ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
WHEN THIS PUBLICATION WAS LAST PRINTED 



Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace. 

Under Secretary M. L. Wilson. 

Assistant Secretary Harry L. Brown. 

Director of Information M. S. Eisenhower. 

Director of Extension Work C. W. Warburton. 

Director of Finance W. A. Jump. 

Director of Personnel Roy F. Hendrickson. 

Director of Research James T. Jardine. 

Director of Marketing and Regulatory Work— A. G. Black. 

Solicitor aIasttn G. White. 

Land Use Coordinator M. S. Eisenhower. 

Office of Plant and Operations Arthur B. Thatcher, Chief. 

Office of C. C. C. Activities Fred W. Moerell. Chief. 

Office of Experiment Stations James T. Jardine, Chief. 

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations Leslie A. Wheeler. Director. 

Agricultural Adjustment Administration R. M. Evans. Administrator. 

Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and Engi- Henby G. Knight, Chief. 

iteering. 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics H. R. Tolley. Chief. 

Agricultural Marketing Service C. W. Kitchen, Chief. 

Bureau of Animal Industry John R. aIohler, Chief. 

Commodity Credit Corporation Carl B. Bobbins, President. 

Commodity Exchange Administration J. W. T. Duvel, Chief. 

Bureau of Dairy Industry O. E. Reed, Chief. 

Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine- Lee A. Strong, Chief. 

Farm Security Administration W. W. Alexander, Administrator. 

Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Leboy K. Smith, Manager. 

Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation — Milo R. Perkins, President. 

Food and Drug Administration Walter G. Campeell, Chief. 

Forest Service Ferdinand A. Silcox, Chief. 

Bureau of Home Economics Louise Stanley, Chief. 

Library Claeibel R. Barnett, Librarian. 

Division of Marketing and Marketing Agree- Mmo R. Perkins, In Charge. 

merits. 

Bureau of Plant Industry E. C. Auchter. Chief. 

Rural Electrification Administration Harry Slatteby, Administrator, 

Soil Conservation Service H. H. Bennett, Chief. 

Sugar Division Joshua Bernhardt, Chief. 

Weather Bureau Francis W. Reichelderfee. Chief, 

4 



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